Structural Therapy

Structural Therapy, or Structural Family Therapy, is a therapeutic approach focused on understanding and improving family dynamics. Developed by Salvador Minuchin in the 1960s, this method emphasizes the role of family structures in the psychological health of its members. Structural therapy asserts that dysfunctional family patterns can lead to individual problems, and thus, interventions aim to modify the family’s organization to foster healthier interactions.

Understanding Structural Family Therapy

At the heart of Structural Family Therapy is the concept of family structure—the invisible rules that govern family interactions. Minuchin identified various subsystems within the family, such as parental, sibling, and spousal subsystems, each with its boundaries. Healthy family functioning depends on clear, appropriate boundaries that are neither too rigid nor too diffuse.

Core Principles of Structural Family Therapy

  • Family Structure: The invisible set of functional demands that organizes the ways in which family members interact.
  • Subsystems: Differentiated units within the family, each with specific roles and boundaries.
  • Boundaries: Invisible barriers that regulate contact with others, with healthy boundaries allowing for both autonomy and intimacy.
  • Enmeshment and Disengagement: Terms describing too diffuse boundaries (enmeshment) or too rigid boundaries (disengagement), both of which can lead to dysfunction.
  • Alignment and Coalitions: Patterns of alliance or opposition within the family that can either support or undermine family functioning.

Methodologies in Structural Family Therapy

Structural therapy involves a series of techniques designed to restructure the family organization:


The therapist builds a connection with the family, becoming a part of their system to understand its dynamics.

Mapping the Family Structure

Creating a visual representation of family relationships, hierarchies, and boundaries to identify areas of dysfunction.


Encouraging family members to enact their interactions within therapy sessions to observe and modify dysfunctional patterns.


Intervening in family interactions to alter the structure, such as clarifying boundaries, reallocating roles, and promoting healthy alliances.

Highlighting and Modifying Transactions

Identifying and changing repetitive interaction patterns that contribute to problems within the family.

Benefits and Application

Structural Family Therapy has been successfully applied to a variety of issues, including:

  • Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the family dynamics contributing to the behavior.
  • Mental Health Issues: Understanding how family structure affects the mental health of members.
  • Substance Abuse: Exploring the role of family interactions in substance use and supporting recovery through structural changes.
  • Marital Issues: Identifying and adjusting dysfunctional patterns between spouses to improve their relationship.

Who Can Benefit from Structural Family Therapy?

Families experiencing conflict, communication problems, or individual member issues related to the family system can benefit from this approach. It’s particularly effective for families with clear patterns of dysfunction that impact one or more members’ mental health or behavior.

Training and Practice

Practitioners of Structural Family Therapy are typically mental health professionals who have received specialized training in family systems theories, Minuchin’s structural model, and related intervention techniques. Training involves coursework, supervision, and often, hands-on experience with families under the guidance of experienced therapists.


Structural Family Therapy offers a powerful framework for understanding and addressing the complexities of family dynamics. By focusing on the structure and patterns of family interactions, it aims to foster healthier relationships and improve the overall functioning of the family unit.